Python Jumpstart by Building 10 Apps Transcripts
Chapter: App 6: LOLCat Factory
Lecture: Creating and detecting directories

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0:00 All right, back in PyCharm, it's time to build that Cat Factory.
0:04 So, like always, we will add a new Python file
0:08 to get started and in our convention, we'll call that
0:13 Let's go ahead and define our main method
0:16 as you guys should be familiar with by now
0:18 so we'll create our main(), and down here let's do a few things
0:21 I'll just sketch this out in comments
0:23 so let's start by saying print the header, as usual,
0:26 next we are going to get or create output folder
0:32 and then we'll download cats
0:34 and then finally, let's go and actually display cats.
0:38 Now just so that we can sort of see things running
0:41 I'll just say hello from main, just for a moment,
0:44 so we can get everything executing just fine
0:46 and remember, we have the live template in PyCharm
0:49 that gives us the correct pattern for launching our main method
0:53 only if it's being called as the program itself
0:55 so here we'll just say main(), nothing too fancy there,
0:59 and let's go and run it once to setup the run configuration boom,
1:03 all right, so everything is working,
1:05 the first thing we've got to do is print the header,
1:08 that is pretty straightforward, so we'll just say def print_header(),
1:11 and you guys are really familiar with this by now
1:14 so let's say print() and it's this sort of thing, do a little duplication,
1:19 and we'll call it Cat Factory.
1:21 Something like that, how about with capital O, Ha?.
1:25 So we can go over here, let's get rid of this useless print,
1:27 and let's go up here, we'll call print_header().
1:30 So the next thing we are going to do is we are going to work with our output folder,
1:33 so let's try the method down here,
1:38 called get_or_create_output_folder().
1:43 All right, so now we are going to use our OS module and the path class
1:48 so we are going to come up here and we can have PyCharm do this
1:51 or we can say import OS and down here we have to pick what our folder is called.
1:55 So we'll say folder equals, and let's just call it cat pictures,
1:58 something like that to make it really obvious,
2:00 and then we'd like to create this folder
2:03 first we'd like to figure out what the full path is
2:05 and then we are going to either create it or just return it if it already exists.
2:09 So let's say full_path = os.path.join()
2:14 and we could start by joining just this in the folder,
2:18 and let's just for a moment print that out,
2:21 you guys have already seen let's make sure we call it
2:23 so that something actually happens
2:26 and if we run this you can see we have ./cat_factories
2:30 and before we were actually able to come up with the full path
2:33 and that was actually working out pretty well,
2:37 we were saying os.path.absolute path,
2:43 and we got our full path to where this folder that doesn't yet exists was.
2:48 However, the fact that we say . really is a comment on the working folder,
2:54 not relative to this particular Python script,
2:58 so I would like to have this folder called cat pictures,
3:01 right next to my file here,
3:03 we could do something different,
3:05 let me just do a print statement here,
3:08 you saw that there is __name__ that is a special string that is defined right,
3:12 we are using that right here, and it's __main__,
3:15 it's literally what it is the way we are running it now
3:18 or it's going to programmed.
3:20 But there is another one that we could work with called file
3:24 and you can see that here is the file that we are currently in,
3:28 the module that we are currently running in regardless of what the working folder is,
3:32 so we can actually get the base folder, we can get it like this,
3:36 we can say os.path and just call dirname()
3:40 and give it this file here like so
3:45 and instead of using this absolute path
3:47 and all this stuff we can just go back and say
3:51 we are going to combine base folder with our little local folder,
3:55 and you should see we have the same output
3:58 but this time it's sort of independent of the working folder.
4:01 So we now have our folder,
4:03 the next thing to do is create this folder but only if it doesn't exist yet,
4:06 so we'll say if not os.path.exists give it the full path
4:13 this is the folder that we are going to work with but maybe this is a file,
4:16 maybe somebody has created a file called cat pictures here,
4:19 we'd like a folder as well so we could say or and come down here
4:23 and say isdir() and let's put a not here,
4:29 Ok so now we want to create this directory,
4:31 add full path and if this had many levels in it
4:34 that didn't already exist you would have to kind of do this recursively,
4:37 but we'll just say os.mkdir(),
4:39 remember it's not on the path it's actually on the OS model directly
4:42 and we'll give it the full path, and we would kind of like to know
4:45 did the thing find the path before or did it actually create it,
4:49 so let's do something like this, we'll say print creating new directory at
4:54 and we'll put the little location here,
4:57 so only when we are creating the directory shall we see this print statement,
5:01 but either way we should return the full path,
5:04 now let me leave this out just for a second to show you some PyCharm goodness
5:08 so if I come over here and I create this variable
5:11 I want to say this could be the folder, like this,
5:14 right away PyCharm says no no no this is a bad idea,
5:17 it looks like you are trying to store the return value a function into this variable folder,
5:22 yes we are, but if you look carefully it will say
5:24 this get or create output folder method does not return anything,
5:28 in some languages this would crash or not compile or something,
5:31 but in Python there is an implicit return value for all functions,
5:35 every function returns a thing, but if you just omit their return statement,
5:39 it's only going to return none, so it's not super useful.
5:41 That's kind of a warning that oh, woops
5:44 we forgot to return full path, regardless of whether we created it.
5:48 Now let's just do a print really quick,
5:54 we'll print so found or created folder and we'll just put a little folder, ok,
5:59 now let's run it, if you look over here there is no cat pictures directory,
6:04 but if I run it it says creating new directory here and then it says
6:08 found or create a folder there yes,
6:10 and now you can see PyCharm's automatically refreshed and found hey,
6:13 there is cat pictures here, if I run it again,
6:15 we should only see the second found or created
6:17 but not the actually creating line.
6:20 Perfect, so now we don't recreate it and actually
6:23 that would have crushed had we tried.
6:25 That's the first half of our os part we've created this folder,
6:28 we are ready to put our binary data into it,
6:30 the next thing we have to do is go download some cat data.
6:34 Before we do that, let's just hit a little command alt+L
6:36 to do some cleanup and have our code look nice and fresh.