Python for Absolute Beginners Transcripts
Chapter: Reading and writing files in Python
Lecture: Demo: Safer file handling

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0:00 Loadings the rolls worked great
0:02 but there's a few things that we need to work on.
0:04 First of all, notice this.
0:06 Now this is a topic we've not covered at all
0:09 we've experienced it, but we haven't covered it.
0:11 If there's a problem with some code in Python
0:14 what happens is Python throws what's called an Exception
0:17 and that means if you're coming down here, and here
0:20 and like right on this line there's an Exception
0:22 it's not like this comes back as nothing.
0:24 It's going to stop what it's doing
0:25 figure out if there's some kind of error handling block
0:28 it's not here, so it's going to go see who called this
0:31 and it's just going to leave
0:32 it's just going to stop on line 95 and carry on.
0:34 You know, maybe worse
0:36 if so the error happened on 36, or 96
0:39 the file's going to be open, and we're going to leave
0:40 and that could be a big problem.
0:42 So we want to be safer about that.
0:44 We want to make sure that no matter what
0:45 even if there's an error
0:47 we call this close function.
0:49 So we can, there's a different way to write this
0:52 these three lines of code here.
0:54 Check this out. This is a new construct, it's called a Context Manager.
0:58 It uses the 'with' keyword
0:59 so you say 'with' whatever we had here
1:03 as whatever the variable name is, so fin
1:05 all right take that, put it there
1:07 and then we indent into this block here.
1:11 Whatever happens in this block
1:13 is going to be when the file is open
1:16 and then when we leave
1:17 you can't really see it here, let me put some more
1:22 you look really carefully see
1:23 there's a vertical line right there?
1:25 This is PyCharm hinting
1:26 oh all this stuff is inside the block.
1:28 Whenever in the with block
1:30 whenever we leave this
1:31 and we go back to, like the next thing is print
1:33 it's going to automatically call close.
1:36 And importantly, it's going to that even
1:38 if there is an error.
1:39 So that, that bit right there
1:41 is a safer version of this
1:43 cause this doesn't check if there is an error
1:45 and also call close.
1:46 That would take like three or four more lines of code.
1:49 So we're not going to do that.
1:50 We're just going to do this.
1:51 Whenever your working on files
1:53 always use a with block there.
1:54 I'll leave this in as a comment for you
1:57 but we're not going to run with that.
1:59 Just one more time, make sure it works.
2:01 Yes, it loaded it up all fine.
2:03 Perfect!
2:04 So, everything is looking great
2:06 this with block, this context manager
2:09 is recommended any time you have something
2:11 that you must must must close, clean up
2:14 blush, shut down
2:15 whatever as part of you've opened it
2:17 do some stuff, and now close it
2:18 even if there is an error.
2:19 This is common in databases
2:21 if you're writing to a database
2:23 you need to have a transaction
2:24 you want to either commit or roll it back
2:26 if there's an error. So it appears in many many places
2:28 also networks and socket connections
2:30 but files is one of the places
2:32 you'll definitely run into these context managers
2:35 so don't forgot to use them.