Python 3, an Illustrated Tour Transcripts
Chapter: Functions
Lecture: Walk-through: Keyword-only Arguments

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0:00 In this video, we're going to look at keyword test. Let's open that up, open it in your editor. Let's read the first assignment,
0:08 it says one formula for force is mass times acceleration create a function force that takes to keyword only arguments mass and acceleration
0:16 and returns the product of the arguments, put this function in the module called py3code. Let's open up py3code here,
0:27 and it says at the bottom put keyword tests here I can split this if I want to and view both of these.
0:39 I want to make a function called force that takes mass and acceleration here so def force and it takes mass and acceleration
0:53 and returns mass times acceleration. Okay, I will save this now and run this guy and see if it works.
1:10 Okay, and so it looks like I got an error here on this line here,
1:15 when I call force 10, 9.8 it did not raise a type error and it wants to raise a type error.
1:20 The reason why that is is because I didn't actually make a keyword only function I just made a normal function that takes mass and acceleration.
1:29 So this will work and it won't raise a type error. The intention of the keyword only arguments is that it makes clear what our numbers are
1:37 in this case it's not clear necessarily which one is mass and which one is acceleration.
1:41 So in order to change that what we need to do is we need to put a star right in front of that. And now when we call this force function,
1:48 we need to specify the mass and acceleration. Let's run it and make sure that it works. Okay, and now I'm on the other problem here
1:59 so that part appeared to work. Let's go on to the next problem, the quadratic formula solves an equation of the form ax^2+ bx + c = 0
2:10 write a function quad that returns a tuple with the solutions make a, b and c keyword only arguments, put this function in a module called
2:24 Okay, so if you remember the quadratic formula, it looks something like this, negative b plus or minus the square root
2:37 of b squared minus 4ac and then all of this over 2a so there's my attempt at writing this out in some little language here.
2:56 Let's see if we can implement this as a Python function here and with keyword only arguments so quad, and I'm going to put a star at the front
3:03 because I want everyone to specify a, b and c when they call this. And because this can return 2 results,
3:11 it can return the positive of the square root and the negative of the square root,
3:15 we're going to make 2 results and return that as a tuple of both of those. So what I'm going to do is I'm just going to say,
3:25 the square root part I'm going to say sqrt is equal to let's say b squared minus 4 times a, times c to the .5
3:41 and then x1 is going to be equal to in parenthesis negative b plus the square root portion and this divided by 2 times a
3:54 and the other solution will be this negative b minus the square root of that and let's return x1 and x2.
4:08 Let's run our test over here and make sure that it works. Okay, and we got that it did indeed work.
4:19 So we can see the calling here rather than saying quad 1, 3, 1 here. we have to explicitly say a is equal to 1, b is equal to 3 and c is equal to 1.
4:32 Note that we can change the order of those if we want to as well.
4:35 This just allows us to again be more explicit and not have magic numbers floating around but to have some context around them.

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