MongoDB for Developers with Python Transcripts
Chapter: High-performance MongoDB
Lecture: Concept: Document design for performance

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0:01 One of the most important things you can do for performance
0:04 in your database and these document databases
0:06 is think about your document design,
0:08 should you embed stuff, should you not, what embeds where,
0:11 do you embed just ids, do you embed the whole thing;
0:14 all of these are really important questions
0:16 and it takes a little bit of experience to know what the right thing to do is.
0:20 It also really depends on your application's use case,
0:24 so something that's really obviously a thing we should consider
0:28 is this service history thing, this adds the most weight to these car objects,
0:34 so we've got this embedded document list field
0:38 so how often do we need these histories?
0:44 How many histories might a car have?
0:46 Should those maybe be in a separate collection
0:49 where it has all the stuff that service record, the class has,
0:52 plus car id, or something to that effect?
0:56 So this is a really important question,
0:59 and it really depends on how we're using this car object, this car document
1:05 if almost all the time we want to work with the service history,
1:07 it's probably good to go in and put it here,
1:10 unless these can be really large or something to that effect,
1:13 but if you don't need them often, you'll consider putting them in their own collection,
1:16 there's just a tension between complexity and separation,
1:20 safety and separation, speed of having them in separate
1:24 so you don't pull them back all the time;
1:26 you can also consider using the only keyword or only operator in MongoEngine
1:30 to say if I don't need it, exclude the service history,
1:34 it adds a little bit of complexity because you often know,
1:38 hey is this the car that came with service history
1:40 or is it a car where that was excluded, things like that,
1:42 but you could use performance profiling and tuning
1:45 to figure out where you might use only.
1:48 Let's look at one more thing around document design.
1:50 You want to consider the size of the document,
1:52 remember MongoDB has a limit on how large these documents can be,
1:56 that's 16 MB per record, that doesn't mean you should think
2:01 oh it's only 10 MB so everything is fine for my document design,
2:05 that might be terrible this is like a hard upper bound,
2:07 like the database stops working after it hits 16 MB,
2:11 so you really want to think about what is the right size,
2:14 so let's look at a couple examples:
2:16 we can go to any collection and say .stats
2:18 and it will talk about the size of the documents and things like that,
2:21 so here we ran db.cars.stats in MongoEngine,
2:25 and we see that the average object size is about 700 bytes,
2:29 there is information about how many there are, and all that kind of stuff,
2:33 but really the most interesting thing for this discussion is
2:35 what is the average object size, 700 bytes
2:38 that seems like a pretty good size to me, it's not huge by any means,
2:42 and this is the cars that contain those service histories,
2:45 so this is probably fine for what we're doing.
2:48 Let me give you a more realistic example.
2:50 Let's think about the Talk Python Training website,
2:52 and the courses and chapters, we talked about them before,
2:56 so here if we run that same thing, db.courses.stats
3:02 you can see that the average object size is 900 bytes for a course,
3:07 and remember the course has the description that shows on the page
3:10 and that's probably most the size, it has a few other things as well,
3:13 like student testimonials and whatnot,
3:16 but basically it's the description and a few hyperlinks.
3:19 So I think this is again a totally good object, average object size.
3:23 Now one of the considerations was I could have taken the chapters
3:27 which themselves contain all the lectures,
3:29 and embedded those within the course,
3:32 would that have been a good idea—
3:34 I think I might have even had it created that way
3:36 in the very beginning, and it was a lot slower than I was hoping for,
3:38 so I redesigned the documents.
3:40 If we run this on this chapter section, you can see
3:43 that the average object size is 2.3 KB,
3:46 this is starting to get a little bit big, on its own it's fine,
3:50 but think about the fact that a course on average has like 10 to 20 chapters,
3:55 so if I embedded the chapters in the course
3:58 instead of putting them to a separate document like I do,
4:02 this is how it actually runs at the time of the recording,
4:04 then it would be something like these courses would be
4:07 24 up to maybe 50 KB of data per entry,
4:12 think about that you go to like the courses page
4:15 and it shows you a big list of all the courses
4:17 and there might be 10 or later 20 courses,
4:20 we're pulling back and deserializing like megabytes of data
4:24 to render a really, really common page, that is probably not ok,
4:28 so this is why I did not embed the chapters and lectures inside the course,
4:34 I just said okay, this is the breaking point
4:37 I looked at the objects' size I looked at where the performance was
4:41 and I said you know what, really it's not that common
4:44 that we actually want more than one chapter at a time,
4:46 but it is common we want lectures, so it's probably the right partitioning,
4:51 but you build it one way, you try it, it doesn't work,
4:53 you just redesign your class structure, recreate the database and try it again,
4:57 but you do want to think about the average object size
5:00 and you can do it super easy with db.colection name.stats.